food crumbscooking, food preparation, recipes, nutrition, food science

Remember your mother telling you -eat your carrots, they’re good for you!

Carrots are a root vegetable, usually orange in color but purple, black, red, white and yellow varieties exist.  The plant probably originated in Persia.  Carrots are one of the most economically important vegetable crops in the world.  In 2013 world production of carrots (combined with turnips) was 37.2 million tons with China producing 45% of the world total -16.8 million tons.  Other major producers were Uzbekistan and Russia with 4% of the world total each and United States at 3 % and Ukraine at 2%.

Carrots can be stored for several months in the refrigerator.  Carrots contain beta-carotene and lesser amounts of alpha-carotene, y-carotene and zeaxanthin.  Alpha and beta carotenes are partly metabolized into Vitamin A providing more than 100% of the Daily Value (DV) per 100 grams serving of carrots.  Carrots are also a good source of Vitamin K (13% DV) and Vitamin B6 (11% DV).

Carrots are also an excellent source of Vitamin A.  The anti-oxidant beta-carotene that gives carrots their bright orange color.  Beta-carotene is absorbed in the intestine and converted into Vitamin A during digestion.

It has been found that the pro-vitamin A beta-carotene from carrots does not actually help people see in the dark (a myth)unless they suffer from a deficiency of Vitamin A.

Carrots are 88% water, 2.8 % dietary fiber. Carrot dietary fiber is mostly cellulose with smaller amounts of hemicellulose, lignin, and starch.  Free sugar includes sucrose, glucose, and fructose.

Raw Carrots -100 grams = 3.5 ounces- contain approximately:*

Energy  . . . . . . . . . .     41   calories                               Vitamin A equivalent – 835 micrograms (104% DV)

Carbohydrate  . . . . . . . .        9.6 grams                                 Beta-carotene  —    8285 micrograms (77% DV)

Sugar  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         4.7 grams

Dietary Fiber  . . . . . . . . .         2.8 grams

Fat  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         0.24 grams

Protein . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         0.93 grams





  • Wikipedia






HATS OFF – to Food Processing Plants and Food Industry Workers for their diligence and care in  their daily work to provide us, the American public, with sanitary and safe food. They process and  handle food and keep equipment and working areas clean and sanitary.

I just watched a couple training videos where workers learn to wear clean clothes – often washable  white coats or uniforms, keep hair covered and cover hands with gloves – a special professional  uniform for food industry workers.

There are training guides and videos to train employees on cleaning equipment, utensils, tables, walls  and floors, cooler racks and walls, drains, doors and door handles.  Employees are trained how to take  equipment apart, remove all removable parts and clean – wash and sanitize mixers, slicers, choppers,  etc.

We do hear of food illnesses and/or contaminated food, but infrequently, when considering the huge amount of food handled and processed in our country, every day, every hour.  The employees of the industry should take great pride in work well done and citizens of our country should be extremely grateful to the men and women in the food processing industry for providing wholesome, safe and sanitary food for our consumption.

I often think that the Food Industry and Food Industry Workers do not get the recognition they deserve for their daily work and skill in food processing.   An honorable profession, indeed!

So HATS OFF to Food Processing Plants and Food Industry Workers for a job well done!

















off Food Addiction

Esiuol5 to Nutrition — Tags:  


food-add-2     Food addiction – real or myth?  The term is used and there are organizations which people can join          for guidance and help.  Loosely defined as “uncontrollable cravings for excess food, especially after          having eaten foods rich in sugar, fat or salt.”

But can food actually be addictive in the same sense as drugs or alcohol? Some say “No” – that there        are several reasons that food cannot be as addictive as drugs or alcohol. While some foods as well as       drugs trigger “feel-good brain chemicals such as dopamine”*, drugs have a much stronger effect as           drugs go directly to the brain, whereas food does not do that. Also there is little evidence that                     individual  substances in food, such as sugar, fat or salt, are addictive.  If that were true, individuals         addicted  would get a spoon of sugar or salt for their addiction, rather they crave a specific food such as cookies, ice cream or soda. **

There has been some research done with rats, but not conclusive. Given sugar solutions all day had no effect, only binge intake showed some symptoms. Also rat studies are done in very controlled environments, unlike a person’s daily life.

One method of working with alcohol addiction is to abstain completely from the product.  That cannot be done with food. Studies done removing particular foods such as ice cream often leads to bingeing. Thus it is often suggested rather than removing a craved food completely is to allow controlled amounts.

Some say that compulsive overeating is a type of behavorial addiction similar to gambling or shopping. Persons lose control over their eating behaviors and find themselves spending excessive amounts of time involved with food and overeating and they will continue despite negative consequences. They will have trouble stopping their behavior even if they want to or have tried several times.*

It seems at this time we do not fully understand compulsive overeating and how to treat it.

Some have found help with organizations and if so, they should continue.  I think we should keep an open mind, -not jumping to conclusions but offering understanding and encouragement to anyone having a problem and continue to watch for progress in research that can lead to help.





  1. disorder.
  2. Cochran, Neva, Can We Become Addicted to Some Types of Foods?, Nutrition Close-Up, Egg Nutrition center, Summer 2015.












The food label or Nutrition Facts that appears on all foods and beverages has been revised and was announced by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) May 2016. This is the first major change since the 1990’s.

Serving size and calories per serving will be more prominent on the label – in larger and bolder type. .  Servings sizes will more nearly represent what people actually consume.  Rather than listing information for 8 ounces of a 20 ounce soda, the information will be for the total 20 ounces, as most persons consume the entire 20 ounces.

For multi-serving packages, nutrition information will be given for one serving as well as for the entire package – a “dual column” label.

Other changes include the addition of “added sugars”. Total sugars and total carbohydrate remain and now “added sugars” will be listed. Calories from fat has been dropped as it is believed that the type of fat is more important than the amount. Values for  “Total Fat”, “Saturated Fat” and “Trans Fat” will remain on the label.

The list of vitamins and minerals has been changed from Vitamin A, Vitamin C, calcium and iron to Vitamin D, calcium, iron and potassium. This new list are nutrients which are often consumed below recommended amounts.  The amount of cholesterol remains on the label and its declared daily value-even though recent guidelines have removed the 300 mg/day limit.

The new label will be required by July 26, 2018. It has been designed not to tell people what they should eat but to make sure they know what they are eating. The goal is to help people make more informed decisions about the food they eat.


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Raines, Tina, PhD, A Nutrition Scientist’s Perspective on the New Food Label, Nutrition close-Up, Egg Nutrition Center, American Egg Board, Summer 2016.










off Overweight & Obesity

Esiuol5 to Nutrition — Tags: ,  




Overweight and Obesity doesn’t seem to be getting better any time soon!

With all the diets, diet pills, weight-reduction programs, exercise classes, etc. – we are not losing weight.

All these efforts just do not seem to be working. We’re heavier than ever!

In the U.S., an estimated 35% of adults and 17% of children are overweight or obese.  And globally about 37% of adults and for children 13%.  Many causes have been cited and debated – sugared foods and beverages, processed foods, sedentary lifestyles, altered flora, environmental toxins, genes, caloric imbalance, and declining rates of breastfeeding. In the U.S. this accounts for approximately $147 billion for obesity-related medical costs per year.  *

Some cite that programs to restrict or ban certain foods has shown some progress and assuming personal responsibility for weight management is basic and critical.

According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, from 1960 – 2006, the percentage of obese adults ages 20 years and older more than doubled from 13% to 35%.  Between 1980 and 2008 the average body mass index (BMI) increased globally be 0.4 per decade for men and 0.6 per decade for women. Currently 21.8% of the global population and 33.9% of the U.S. population is obese.**

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention state that as of 2015 there was a 19.4 percent increase in obesity in the U.S, since 1997 when they first started tracking obesity. They say that obesity rates, except for 2003, have increased every year for both men and women. They further state that people age 40-59 are the most likely to be obese.***

Causes mentioned range from promotion of sugary and high calorie foods, lack of personal responsibility, absence of sidewalks, etc.  Some have recommended consumption of nutrient-dense foods, restrict marketing to children, more money for education and more physical activity. On a small positive note, improvements in transportation, i.e., promotion of cycling and walking has had a slight impact. On the other hand menu labeling with health information and new supermarkets were found to be ineffective.*

The fact remains that efforts used and promoted to reverse obesity trends have not worked.  What do you suggest?










* Madsen, Dave, Nutrition Close Up, Egg Nutrition Center, Fall 2015.

** US Global Obesity Levels: The Fat Chart;

***Romero, Melissa, This Unsettling Chart Shows How Much Fatter Americans Have Become In the Last 20 Years, www.Men’ ,  June 6, 2016.