food crumbscooking, food preparation, recipes, nutrition, food science

 

I think today I’ll simply sort through my recipes and pull out a few for Spring meals.  Hope you like them.

 

CRUMB CRUSTED BAKED HAM

1  smoked ham half, (about 6 #)

3  cups fresh whole wheat bread crumbs

2  tablespoons dried sage leaves

1  tablespoon dried rosemary leaves

1/3 cup  spicy brown mustard

4  tablespoons margarine, melted

Place ham on rack in roasting pan. Bake @ 325 degrees for 1 hour.

Mix bread crumbs, herbs mustard, and margarine in bowl until crumbs are evenly moistened.  Spread remaining mustard on ham. Pat crumb mixture on ham.

Bake to 160 degrees, about 1 ½ hours.

 

HAM FLAMBE

1  21-ounce can cherry pie filling

2  tablespoons brandy

Bake ham according to directions.  Thirty minutes before ham is done, spoon pie filling over ham.  Continue baking.  Just before serving, heat brandy and pour over ham and light!

 

 

ORIENTAL CHICKEN

Chicken   -  1 medium-sized fryer, cut into serving sized pieces or use boneless chicken

Breasts.

1 cup        -    plain yogurt

¼ cup       -    soy sauce

1 teaspoon -   ground ginger

1 clove     -     garlic (chopped fine)

3 tablespoons – honey

Arrange chicken parts in baking dish, skin side up, and set aside.

Put yogurt in bowl and stir in soy sauce, ginger & garlic,

Spread the sauce evenly over the chicken.

Put chicken in cold oven for 1 hour.

After 1 hour remove from oven and remove a ½ cup of pan juices.

Stir honey into the removed juice and re-coat the chicken.

Bake for an additional 30 minutes or until crispy & golden.

(Serve with rice and a steamed green vegetable.  If desired, thicken the sweetened pan gravy and put over the rice.)

 

 

BASIC LAMB CHOPS

Heat a large skillet over medium heat.

Sprinkle 1 teaspoon salt evenly in bottom of skillet.

Add chops and cook on both sides, 2-4 minutes per side for medium-rare.

Serve with rice, mint jelly, etc.

 

 

STEAMED BROCCOLI with LIME DRESSING

1 ¼ pounds    broccoli ( 1 large bunch)

1 tablespoon  fresh lime juice

½ teaspoon    toasted sesame oil

Coarse salt

Wash and clean broccoli and cut into lengthwise pieces

In a pot fitted with a steamer basket, bring 1 inch of water to a boil.  Add broccoli pieces.  Cover and steam until tender, about 5 minutes.  (No steamer basket, then bring to boil in a sauce pan and cook until tender.

Meanwhile whisk together lime juice and sesame oil, season with salt.

Add broccoli to the dressing.  Toss lightly to coat, Serve immediately

 

 

GREEN BEANS WITH PARSLEY and GARLIC

Coarse salt and ground pepper

1 pound         green beans, stem ends trimmed

4 teaspoons    olive oil

2 garlic           cloves, minced

2 teaspoons    lemon, grated

1 tablespoon   fresh lemon juice

2 tablespoons  fresh parsley, chopped

Cook green beans in boiling, salted water until crisp-tender, about 5 minutes. Drain

Heat 2 teaspoons oil over medium-low heat.

Add garlic.  Cook until starting to soften, about 2 minutes.  Return beans to pot.

Add lemon and juice and the two remaining teaspoons of oil and parsley.

Season with salt and pepper.  Toss to coat.  Serve.

 

 

SPINACH and WALNUT SAUTE

2 cloves          garlic, sliced

¼ cup             walnuts, chopped

2 tablespoons olive or vegetable oil

1 pkg (10 oz)   fresh spinach, stems removed

2 tablespoons  balsamic or red wine vinegar

1 oz (¼ cup)    Parmesan Cheese, shredded

In skillet saute garlic and walnuts in oil for 2-3 minutes.

Add spinach and vinegar and saute 2 minutes.

To serve, spoon spinach onto serving platter, top with cheese.  (Makes 4 servings.)

 

 

ROMAINE LETTUCE with CARROT-GINGER DRESSING

1 medium        carrot

1 tablespoon    fresh ginger, finely grated, peeled

3 tablespoons   rice vinegar

1 tablespoon     soy sauce

1 tablespoon     water

3 tablespoons    vegetable oil

1 head                romaine lettuce

Peel and thinly slice carrot to equal ½ cup.

Place carrot in blender with the peeled, finely grated fresh ginger, the rice vinegar, soy sauce, and water.  Blend on high until carrot is pureed.

With the blender running, add the 3 tablespoons vegetable oil in a steady stream, blending until incorporated.

Cut the lettuce into bit-size pieces.

Divide lettuce among four serving plates and drizzle with dressing  Serve immediately  (Serves four.)

 

 

 

FRESH FRUIT MEDLEY

1 pint             strawberries, hulled and halved

½ pint            blueberries

1                    banana, sliced

2 tablespoons orange juice

2 teaspoons    orange-flavor liqueur (optional)

Toss together all ingredients

Chill

 

 

STRAWBERRIES ROMANOFF

2 quarts         fresh strawberries

2 ounces        Grand Marnier

16 ounces      port wine

¼ cup plus 3 tablespoons    sugar

3 cups           heavy whipping cream

Wash, hull and cut strawberries in halves.

Mix Grand Marnier, port wine and ¼ cup sugar in large bowl.

Add strawberries.  Refrigerate for at least 2 hours.

Whip cream with remaining 3 tablespoons sugar until soft peaks form. (Reserve 1 cup of whipped cream and refrigerate until time too use as garnish.)

Drain strawberries and discard the liquid.  Fold drained berries into remaining whipped cream. Divide between 6 chilled dessert dishes.  Top each portion with the reserved whipped cream – (can put into a pastry bag and with a star tip decorate each dish).

 

 

PEAR PIE

Pie dough (your favorite recipe, enough for a double 9-inch crust, or purchase prepared crusts.

½ cup            brown sugar

¼ cup            granulated sugar

Pinch of         salt

½ teaspoon    ground ginger

¼ teaspoon    ground cinnamon

2 teaspoons    cornstarch

6                       pears, peeled, cored & sliced

1 tablespoons fresh orange juice

1 tablespoon   fresh lemon juice

1 tablespoon   butter, cut in pieces

1                        egg

1 tablespoon   heavy cream

Preheat oven to 425 degrees F.  Roll half of the pie dough on a lightly floured surface to fit a 9-inch pie plate.  Drape the dough into the pie plate, leaving about an inch overhang.

Combine the brown sugar, granulated sugar, salt, ginger, cinnamon and cornstarch in a bowl and Reserve.

Arrange the pear slices in the pie shell and sprinkle with the reserved dry ingredients.

Drizzle with orange and lemon juice.

Dot with small pieces of butter.

Roll out the remaining pie dough to form the top crust.  Moisten the rim of the bottom crust with water. Cover with the top crust, trimming any large amount of excess.

Press the two crusts together lightly and roll the edges under toward the center with your fingers.  Crimp the edge decoratively.

Beat egg and cream together.

Glaze top crust lightly with a pastry brush. Cut six 2-inch slits evenly around the top for steam to escape and to test pears for doness.

Bake pie in  center of oven for 1 ¼ hours.  Cover edges with aluminium foil if the crust becomes too brown.  Cool on a wire rack.  Serve slightly warm or at room temperature.

To serve cut into 6 or 8 pieces.

 

 

Restaurant

At dinner a couple evenings ago, after finishing a turkey dinner my husband selected a fresh fruit salad for dessert.  We seldom eat   dessert so I was surprised when the waiter offered the fresh fruit salad among his featured desserts.  My husband is a mild diabetic, so this was a good choice.  I then began thinking about how prevalent is this?  I have heard and read a lot about restaurants beginning to offer more “healthy” foods and I did some reading and have found that the restaurant industry has been very busy trying to offer what customers say they want on the menu.

I read in a recent survey, done by the restaurant industry, that more than 70 percent of adults said they were trying to eat more healthfully now at restaurants. Thus, the restaurant industry has been actively responding to consumers’ interest in healthful offerings and nutrition information.**  Restaurants are offering items that incorporate more produce, lean protein and whole grains, while limiting sodium and trans-fat.  Patrons are now looking for nutritional variety as well as delicious food when they dine out.  They want more information to help them make smart choices. They may want to know an item’s calorie count, require special meals for specific dietary needs and try to add more produce to their diets.  Additional interests that customers have been asking for include more emphasis on children’s nutrition and children’s menus and gluten-free cuisine.  Other popular trends include local sourcing, whole grains, fruit/vegetable side dishes for kids, lower-sodium food, lower-calorie items and smaller (or half) portions for a lower price.**

The National Restaurant Association (NRA) has been working with the restaurant industry, food manufacturers and suppliers, policymakers, nutritionists and consumers to help restaurants cater to these consumer demands. Much of what is done on nutrition is spearheaded by the NRA Board of Directors’ Food & Healthy Living Committee.

To help provide nutrition information to diners, the Association advocated for legislation that will soon provide consumers with nutrition information in more than 250,000 chain restaurants all across the country.  For standard menu items, the law provides a national standard to make it easier for chain restaurants to provide consistent information about menu items for their guests. In the past decade, many states and municipalities sought to establish menu labeling regulations, so the NRA worked with Congress to pass a federal standard. The NRA then sought a law that set consistent guidelines about how restaurants should present nutrition information to consumers.  The law enacted in 2010 applies to restaurant chains with 20 or more locations that operate under the same brand.  Those operations must display calories on menus, menu boards and drive-thru signs.  They must also provide additional information through websites, brochures or other manners.  It also protects restaurant companies that operate in several states from having to produce separate menus to comply with varying state and local laws.

In addition to more healthy menu items, nutrition information and legislation, the industry has been busy in several successful programs. They have received much praise for their Our Kids Live Well program. Kid’s Live Well is a voluntary national program to encourage restaurants to offer healthful children’s menu items. The NRA launched the program in 2011.  Participating restaurants offer items that meet strict nutrition criteria based on USDA and the Institute of Medicine’s scientific recommendations. The NRA works with a nutrition-analysis company to help restaurants identify, analyze and promote their healthful kids’ meals.  A free geo-coded app connects parents to restaurants that offer healthful children’s items. The NRA and Kids Live-Well restaurants connect with plugged in parents through Facebook, Twitter and other social networks. Social  media has become an important platform to promote what restaurants are doing to enhance healthful offerings for kids.  NRA also works with ‘Partnership for a Healthier America’.  The group engages private sector business to help curb childhood obesity.  Several restaurant chains have their children’s menus.

Every five years USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services publish new Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The NRA represents the restaurant industry and participates in the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee.  The NRA has been soliciting input from restaurant companies and will present information about restaurants’ role in the food supply system and diet as well as the restaurant industry’s advances in reducing sodium and nutrients of concern and providing more fresh produce, whole grains, and other healthful options.  To help, the NRA is offering educational programs. NRA helps restaurants to have the materials needed to train staff on food allergies, information on how to incorporate whole grains and fresh produce into menus and how to find suppliers that offer gluten-free or low sodium products.  FF-Cust

The NRA’s ServSafe program is another leading resource for food safety and responsible alcohol service training and certification.  This year a new course is being launched to help restaurants serve the 15 million Americans with food allergies with ServSafe Allergens.  At restaurant shows, more exhibitors are displaying gluten, dairy and allergen-free items as well as low-sodium, low-sugar, vegetarian and locally sourced food and tips to incorporate more fresh produce into menus.

The restaurant industry has a long standing partnership with the Produce Marketing Association. They work closely to increase fresh produce in restaurant and foodservice meals and examine barriers to and opportunities for greater produce use.

Future challenges the industry says are to educate restaurant members about compliance and educate consumers about balancing the calories they consume, while considering concerns about food allergies and saturated fat and sugar in the diet. Some restaurants publicly promote this work while others make healthful changes to recipes without drawing too much (attention).

NRA also says one of their biggest observation’s this past year has been the growing awareness by consumers about what is on their plates.  Consumers want to know where the food comes from, under what conditions is it produced, and the social and environmental impact of food production.

Getting the word out about their efforts, restaurants and the restaurant industry use the internet and social media. Many restaurants provide nutrition information on their websites or on a mobile format. From barbeque restaurants, to ice cream parlors, to steak houses, many are participating and you will see their effort.

Many restaurants post nutrition information online and about 25% of adults say they have looked at that information according to NRA research.  However relating to reality, although research says that 50% of consumers seek healthy options at restaurants, less than half of them actually purchase the healthy options – they order instead the thick burger versus the salad.* With continued interest, the numbers may do better.

Also relating to reality, the Industry says three challenges, of equal or greater importance, for the next 3-5 years are:

1 – availability of quality real estate.

2. – overcoming external pressures on cash flow (for example) government regulations.

3. – having a strong enough middle class economy to support the growth of the industry.

 

In conclusion I would like to say thank-you to the restaurants for their time, efforts and money to provide more healthful choices for consumers.  Personel in restaurant work are already very busy and work very hard and to add this extra work to their schedules is appreciated. We know that changing recipes and menus is not easy and is expensive.  Again, we, as customers, say thank-you.

In addition, I would like to note that I hope that restaurant menus do not become too “healthy” as many of us like to dine at a restaurant to enjoy a favorite, although not necessarily low calorie or low fat entrée or a favorite “high-calorie” dessert.  Also don’t forget to offer some large portions for those who need large portions for a day of hard physical work.”

 

For now, Happy and Healthful Dining!     rest-table-outside

 

 

 

 

*    FastCasual.com

**   National Restaurant Association, On the Menu: Restaurant Nutrition Initiatives 2013 Report

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

 

Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things- humans, plants, animals and microorganisms. In humans, copper is essential to the proper functioning of organs and metabolic processes. The micronutrient is necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart and many other body organs. Copper is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. These enzymes help produce cellular energy and regulate nerve transmission, blood clotting and oxygen transport. Copper stimulates the immune system to fight infections, to repair injured tissues and to promote healing. Copper also helps neutralize “free-radicals”, which can cause severe damage to cells.*

The human body doesn’t need much copper and it is rare for one to be truly deficient in copper. Signs of possible copper deficiency include anemia, low body temperature, bone fractures and osteoporosis, low white blood cell count, irregular heartbeat, loss of pigment from the skin, and thyroid problems. These symptoms can be caused by many other factors too. Too much copper can also be dangerous.

Copper is an essential trace mineral that cannot be formed by the human body.  It must be ingested from dietary sources.  The best dietary sources include seafood (especially shellfish – oysters, squid, lobster, mussels, crab and clams.), organ meats, red meat, whole grains – such as wheat and rye Enriched cereals such as bran flakes, shredded wheat, and raisin bran, legumes (beans and lentils,  soybeans, navy beans, and peanuts) and chocolate, such as unsweetened or semisweet baker’s chocolate and cocoa, Nuts and nut butters, such as cashews, filberts, macadamia nuts, pecans, almonds, and pistachios, and several fruits and vegetables including lemons and raisins, dried fruit, mushrooms, tomatoes, potatoes, some dark green leafy vegetables (such as kale) sweet potatoes, bananas, grapes and avocado, and fruits (coconuts, papaya and apples), and blackstrap molasses. Tea, rice and chicken are relatively low in copper but can provide a reasonable amount if consumed in significant amounts.

Eating a balanced diet with a range of food from different food groups is the best way to avoid copper deficiency.

Recommended daily dietary intake of copper from the Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine.

Pediatric:

Birth-6 months – 200 mcg daily

7-12 months – 220 mcg

1-3  years – 340 mcg

4-8  years – 440mcg

9-13 years -700 mcg

14-18 years – 890 mcg   Children should get copper from foods.  Don’t give copper supplements to children.

 

Adults:  19 years and older – 900 mcg daily

Pregnant women – 1,000 mcg daily

Breastfeeding women – 1,300 mcg daily.

The best way to get enough copper is through the diet. Multivitamins can include copper and it is also available as an oral supplement and as a topical gel.  If you take a copper supplement, also take a zinc supplement (8-15 mg of zinc for every 1 mg of copper) as an imbalance of these two minerals can cause health problems.

Severe deficiency of copper in pregnant mothers increases the risk of health problems in their fetuses and infants. Health effects noted include low birth weights, muscle weaknesses, and neurologic problems. However, copper deficiencies in pregnant women can be avoided with a balanced diet.

Supplements should only be taken under a doctor’s supervision. Supplementation is not recommended for healthy adults who consume a well-balanced diet which includes a wide range of foods.  Physicians may consider copper supplementation for illnesses that reduce digestion (e.g., children with frequent diarrhea or infections, alcoholics, for insufficient food consumption (e.g., the elderly, the infirm, those with eating disorders or on diets, for patients taking medications that block the body’s use of copper and for anemia patients who are treated with iron supplements and for anyone taking zinc supplements and those suffering from osteoporosis. Some popular vitamin supplements include copper. These supplements can result in excess free copper in the brain as the copper can cross the blood-brain barrier directly, whereas, organic copper in food is first processed by the liver which keeps free copper levels under control.

If insufficient quantities of copper are ingested, copper reserves in the liver will become depleted and a copper deficiency leading to tissue injury and in extreme cases, death. Toxicity from copper deficiency can be treated with a balanced diet or supplementation under the supervision of a doctor.

There is some current discussion that marginal copper deficiencies may be more wide spread than previously thought.  More study must be done, but a mild deficiency could cause lowered resistance to infection, general fatigue, impaired neurological function and elevated risk for coronary heart disease and osteoporosis. Potential consequences of copper toxicity is possible in hemodialysis patients and individuals with chronic liver disease.

There are genetic disorders of copper metabolism leading to severe copper toxicity such as (Wilson disease). Several rare genetic diseases are associated with the improper utilization of copper in the body. Wilson disease, Memkes disease, idiopathic copper toxicosis, etc. – these diseases are inherited.

Copper exists in most of the world’s surface water and groundwater, although the actual concentration of copper in natural waters varies geographically. Drinking water can comprise 20-25% of dietary copper.

In many regions of the world, copper tubing that conveys drinking water can be a source of dietary copper.  A copper tube can leach a small amount of copper, particularly in its first year or two of service.  Afterwards a protective surface usually forms on the inside of copper tubes that retards leaching.

Copper can leach out of pipes into water, especially in hot water if it sits in copper pipes for a long time. To avoid problems always cook with cold water. Flushing the pipes by running cold water for 2-3 minutes can reduce copper. If there are blue-green stains around the faucet or sink, or if you detect a metallic taste to your water, you may want to have the water tested.

Water, containing copper concentrations greater than 6mg/L may cause stomach problems such as nausea and vomiting.  If you have well water you may also want to get the water tested for mineral content.

One can also get copper from copper cookware.  Avoid unlined copper cookware.

Excess copper intake, usually from accidental ingestion, can become toxic.  Excess copper intake causes stomach upset, nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain, headache, dizziness, weakness and a metallic taste in the mouth and can lead to tissue injury and disease and can produce anemia by interfering with iron transport and/or metabolism. Copper toxicity is rare but can cause heart problems, jaundice, coma and even death.

There are possible interactions with medications.  If one is being treated with any of the following medications, one should not use copper supplements without talking to your doctor. These medications can possibly raise or lower the level of copper in one’s body.**

  • Birth control pills and estrogen following menopause,
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – such as pain relievers include aspirin, ibuprofen, Advil, Motrin and Aleve,
  • Penicillamine – a medication to treat Wilson’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis,
  • Allopurinol (Zyloprim) – medication to treat gout,
  • Cimetidine (Tagamet) – medication to treat ulcers and gastric esophageal reflux disease (GERD),
  • Nifedipine (Procardia or Adalat),
  • Zinc

 

 

*Copper in health – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

** Cooper- University of Maryland Medical Center

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

potatochips

soda_cola_tn

Have you ever really wondered if what you eat really makes a difference or is it just hype or some graduate students trying to write their thesis?  Well I don’t know about the hype or the grad students, but I am remembering a simple experiment that a class of students and I did many years ago.  At the time I was teaching an introductory nutrition class to Food Service Management students.  We chose to have two cages of little white mice.

To the one cage the students would give all the scraps from their cooking and meal service – quite a nice array of a variety of foods from their cooking classes and banquets, including meats, vegetables, breads, fruits, etc.  The little mice in the other cage could only receive potato chips and cola.

Within 3-4 days we noticed a marked contrast.  The mice receiving the “well-rounded” diet were content and playful.  The mice receiving only chips and cola were becoming agitated.  Within a few more days the contrast was even more pronounced. The mice receiving a “balanced” diet were growing, content and playful.  The chips and cola mice were agitated, were striking out with their feet and their hair was standing straight up and they seemed to be losing weight, even though they could have all the chips and cola they wanted.

There was nothing really scientific about the project, and we kept no documentation, but I recall, I believe before two weeks, the students begged me to let them feed the chips  & cola mice the same food as the others.  So we did and soon the chips and cola mice were calming down, their hair was softening and laying down and they began to gain weight.

Interesting as I recall.  Since their body size is so much smaller than a human’s, the changes occurred in much less time.  Of course they were just mice.  But could something like that happen, obviously on a smaller scale and much more slowly, to a human?

 

 

 

 

 

 sausages-mixer sausages-mixing

 

Apart from the overall quality of extenders and fillers to be added, there is also the addition of products to produce the  right proportion of substances to give products the accepted texture, i.e., a more granular texture with breadcrumbs and coarse TVP, etc.,  and those products that provide a more soft texture with starches and flours.  Also the proportion of substances with higher water absorption capacity (such a starches, flours or fibers) and lower water absorption capacity (such as soy products and other legumes)  must be determined.

Binders allow processors to mix various cuts of meat into affordable, delicious, and innovative protein options. Consumers enjoy visiting supermarket delis that feature newer and trendier items including meats such as kielbasa and salami.  These formed sausages rely on binders to hold the ground meat and seasonings together in one cohesive mass.  Sandwiches are an important (essential)  part of the American diet.  New generations want basics, classics and nostalgic, but also new twists on old stand-bys.  Chicken snacks are taking menus by storm.

Most of these proteins rely on binders – USDA definition -  substances that may be added to foods to thicken or improve texture.  Fillers and extenders are used to lower the cost of meat products by extending the meat component;  binders are not intended to contribute volume to the meat, but rather to improve the meat’s consistency and “mouthfeel”.  Many binders function by absorbing water, which improves product yield.

There are basically three types of binders available to meat processors.  Some are based on proteins with common ingredients being soy isolate, wheat gluten, milk caseinate, gelatin and eggs.  Usage levels tends to be low – about 2 %.  They are highly instrumental in binding water and restructuring the protein matrix, which improves the meat’s eating qualities.

Enzymes are a type of protein, defended by the American Meat Institute. The two enzymes, transglutaminase (TG) and beef fibrin, although they have long been used as binders in meat they are seldom used and mostly used in foodservice products and must be listed on the ingredients and labeled “formed” or “reformed”.

Other binders contain little or no protein, such as fibers, flours and starches.  These are carbohydrates designed for binding moisture in processed meats to improve the products sensory characteristics.  Popular binders in ground meat-based products include oatmeal, bread crumbs, rice and even semolina.

Extenders and fillers are always used in combination with binders, the most common being isolated soy protein (ISP) and milk protein (caseinate).

Most binders such as isolated soy protein and milk protein used in non-extended and extended raw-cooked sausages do not increase volume.  However the binding substance, carrageenan, can provide volume increase as it is highly water absorbent. It is used in the manufacture of coarse products such as burgers or coarse skinless sausage products and in cooked hams and in some raw-cooked products. With the addition of as little as 0.01 percent being able to increase the yield of the finished product up to 8 percent.  Carrageean can improve the texture of coarse products such as burgers and skinless sausage products, as well as improve the slicing quality of cooked hams.

Phosphates are the most effective water-binding agents in processed meats.  Phosphates open the structure of proteins which enables the proteins to hold large amounts of water.  This increased water-holding capacity is what prevents water losses when meat is smoked and cooked.    Plum-derived ingredients which contain naturally occurring sorbitol and fiber, are emerging as an alternative to phosphates.  They improve the juiciness of the burger.

With so many binders available to meat processors, endless innovations are possible to “meet” the needs of today’s adventurous consumer.

sausage_4

In reconstituted hams – muscle meat which is cut into small pieces and reshaped to resemble the larger piece of meat- modified soluble binders including isolated soy protein, gelatine, carrageen and modified starches are used as they have a high binding capacity.  (Curing salt, spices, and substances assisting in water-binding -commonly phosphates- are the binders and are injected or mixed into the lean meat and the entire mix is then treated by tumbling.  (The tumbling process releases additional myofibril protein with strong water binding capacity.)  Maximum water retention can be achieved

If in addition to the above treatments, carageenan is used as a binder.   Carrageenan powder dissolved in hot water can absorb and hold moisture and significantly reduce cooking losses. The transglutaminase products are very good at strengthening the linkages between proteins.

Other additives, in addition to fillers and extenders are added for preservation and flavor.  Salt for flavor and shelf-life,  nitrates for color, flavor and shelf life, and phosphates for protein structuring and water binding, and monosodium glutamate, commonly known as MSG is added for flavor.*

 

 

 

 

Berry, Donna, Food Business News.net, Binders enable Development tof Trendy Meats, 8/27/2012.

The Butcher, Vol2, No 9 – Food Additives-Meat Extenders.

Ehow.com/print/info_10030879_meat-filler