food crumbscooking, food preparation, recipes, nutrition, food science


Chromium is an essential mineral that is not made by the body and must be obtained from the diet.

Chromium is important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.  It stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, which are important for brain function and other body processes and is important in the breakdown (metabolism) of insulin.

Chromium deficiency may be seen as impaired glucose tolerance. It is seen in older people with type 2 diabetes and in infants with protein-calorie malnutrition.


Recommended daily intake:

Age:      (micrograms per day)           Males      Females      Pregnancy          Lactation

0 to 6 months      0.2

7-12 months         5.5

1-3 years              11

4-8 years              15

9-13 years       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           25               21

14-18 years    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          35              24                 29                      44

19-50 years     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   .  .  .  .          35              25                30-                     45

50+ years        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   .  .  .          30              20


Chromium is widely distributed in the food supply, but most foods provide only small amounts – less than 2 micrograms (mcg) per serving.

Selected food sources of chromium:

Broccoli, ½ cup    –    –   –      11  (mcg)

Potatoes mashed -1 cup .        3

Beef cubes, 3 ounces    .   .      2

Turkey Breast, 3 oz  .   .    .     2

Whole Wheat bread, 2 slices    2

Apple, 1 medium  .   .   .   .       1

The best source of chromium is brewer’s yeast.  Other good sources include: beef, liver, eggs, chicken, oysters, wheat germ, green peppers, apples, bananas, spinach.


Absorption from the intestinal tract is low ranging from less than 0.4% to 2.5% of the amount consumed. The remainder is excreted from the body.

The body’s chromium content may be reduced under several conditions.  Diets high in simple sugars can increase chromium excretion in the urine.  Infection, acute exercise, pregnancy and lactation and stressful states (such as physical trauma) can increase chromium losses and lead to deficiency.  However chromium deficiency in humans is rare.


There is some interest that suggests that older adults may be more vulnerable to chromium depletion. Chromium research has been of interest in the treatment of diabetes, in lowering lipid levels and promoting weight loss and in changing body composition from fat to lean muscle mass.  However results are yet inconclusive.

Few serious adverse effects have been linked to high intakes of chromium, so there has been no Tolerable Upper Intake Level established.  However the increased intake of any substance beyond normal limits, should be done with a physician’s consult.

As with all nutrients the best means is to eat a balanced diet.



Are foods part of our medical care?

Are the foods we eat important in the prevention of various health conditions?  Well, of course.  If an individual ingests a substance and it is metabolized, it becomes part of  the system.

They also think so at the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. At the University’s Center for Advanced Functional Foods Research and Entrepreneurship, they have  ‘engineered’ “the drink” and other foods that they hope will be a powerful cancer prevention tool. They say they want to understand why some foods and diets are associated with a reduced risk of  certain cancers and what are the components of those diets that really inhibit cancer. CAFFRE, as the Center is known, wants to study foods  – “from crops to the clinic to the consumer”.  The Center is  part of the College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences.

They say scientists have long known that people with tomato-rich diets have decreased risk from certain diseases, especially prostate cancer.  Studies have shown that if tomatoes are consumed with soy, even more benefits are seen.  Thus “the drink” soy-infused tomato juice has gone through two clinical trials. The juice wasn’t palatable at first –too gritty and pasty- but a more flavorful version was eventually developed.

In addition to “the drink” CAFFRE is also researching black raspberries, avocados, etc., to learn of any cancer prevention benefits.  They acknowledge they see foods more as a type of prevention, rather than as a cure. *

We are encouraged to learn of work with foods to improve our health, as we know that food is vitally important to our health.  However as I relate such information, I always do so with caution as there are some who will quickly conclude that some foods are ”perfect foods” and that it should instantly be recommended that all persons should – in this example- be consuming several glasses of tomato juice every day.

That, of course, is silly and is not what the research is suggesting.  Again – everything in moderation and a “well-balanced” diet is the answer.







  • The Ohio State University Alumni Association, Beating Cancer, November, 2014











eggs in carton


Today, two percent (2 %) of the U.S. population live on farms producing food for the remaining 98 percent.

We have to marvel at that fact, realizing that here in America we have an abundance of high quality food, for everyone. It is raised and harvested by 2 % of the population. It is then processed, transported and marketed and available as nutritious, wholesome, delicious food for all of us. It is a fantastic accomplishment. Much of this food is very perishable and yet we receive it in find form, thanks to many, many hard-working, conscientious individuals in the food industry.

Eggs are one of those perishable foods that is brought to our grocery stores everyday – fresh and wholesome.

According to the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) there are 225.9 million eggs laid per day in egg producing companies across the United states.

The top ten egg producing states, ranked by number of hens in production: *egg diag-2

Iowa – – – –    53,202
Ohio – – – –    29,865
Indiana – – –  26,656
Pennsylvania – 23,585
California – –  15,571
Texas – – – –  15,000
Michigan – – – 12,799
Minnesota – –  10,159
Georgia – – –    9,477
Nebraska – – –  9,374
Hen health and egg quality are the top two priorities on egg farms, any day, every day.
Egg farms follow guidelines to ensure that hens are provided nutritious feed, clean water, proper lighting, and fresh air.

Eggs are Graded before retail sale. Grading is AA, A, B. There is no difference in nutritional value between different grades and all grades are sold retail – but few B grade go retail.

Grade AA – white is firm and has thick white surrounding the yolk and a small amount of thin white. Yolk is round and elevated.

Grade A — White is reasonably firm and has a considerable amount of thick white and a medium amount of thin white. Yolk is round and elevated.

Grade B — White is weak and watery, has no thick white and a large amount of thin white which is spread thinly. Yolk is wider and flat.
Eggs are sorted according to size & should be placed end up in cartons.

Eggs are shipped in refrigerated trucks. In U.S. most eggs reach the grocery store just one day after being laid and nearly all of the them with in 72 hours (3 days).

Eggs must be refrigerated. An egg can age more in day at room temperature than 1 week in the refrigerator.

Egg nutrition
Egg consumption by Americans is increasing.

America’s eggs today are a high quality product that provides all natural, high quality protein, that is now 14% lower in cholesterol (down from 215 mg to 185 mg) and 54% higher in Vitamin D.

90% of Americans believe eggs are a nutritious choice for Breakfast.

The number of ‘heavy’ egg users (purchase 3 or more dozen per month) has increased from 38% to 45% in the last four years.

Egg consumption, per capita, has grown to 252 eggs in 2013. An increase of 4 eggs per person in last 2 years


Shoppers know:

Eggs are all natural

Are a good source of high quality protein

Are a good source of vitamin D

Are 70 calories


Egg exports have also increased 27.4% since 2012.

In 2012 – there were 274 million dozen exported
In 2013 – there were 349 million dozen exported.
















* American Egg Board,











1 lemon
1 tbsp vegetable oil
4 skinless boneless chicken breast halves (about 1 lb)
1 can (10 ½ oz) condensed cream of broccoli soup
¼ cup milk
1/8 tsp pepper

1. Cut 4 thin slices of lemon and set aside. Squeeze 2 tsp juice from remaining lemon and set aside.
2. Over medium heat, in skillet, in hot oil, cook chicken 10 minutes or until browned on both sides. Spoon off fat.
3. Meanwhile in small bowl, combine soup and milk.
Stir in reserved lemon juice and pepper.
Pour over chicken; top each chicken piece with a lemon slice.
4. Reduce heat to low. Cover, simmer 5 minutes or until chicken is no longer pink, stirring occasionally.
Serve with rice, if desired.
4 servings.



2 slabs baby-back pork ribs ( about 1 -1 1/2 pounds each.)
To taste salt and pepper
½ cup Barbeque Sauce (purchased or make recipe-following)

1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees.
2. Season ribs all over with salt and pepper.
3. Stack ribs on a large piece of heavy duty foil, seal tightly and place on rimmed baking sheet.
4. Cook until fork-tender, about 1 ½ hours.
5. Heat grill to medium-high. (Lightly oil grates)
6. Remove ribs from foil and brush with sauce, coating well.
7. Grill until nicely browned, 3-4 minutes. Serve with more sauce.

1 Tbsp olive oil
1 small onion, chopped fine
4 cloves garlic, minced
1 Tbsp mustard powder
1 tsp Red-pepper flakes
3 Tbsp light-brown sugar
2 cups ketchup
1/3 cup Worcestershire sauce
1/3 cup cider vinegar
1 Tbsp molasses
¼ tsp ground pepper

1. In a saucepan, heat oil over medium heat.
2. Add onion and garlic.
3. Cook, stirring occasionally until translucent, about 5 minutes.
4. Stir in mustard powder and red-pepper flakes and cook 30 seconds more.
5. Reduce heat to low and stir in sugar, ketchup, Worcestershire, vinegar, molasses and pepper. Cook, stirring occasionally, until thickened, 5-10 minutes.



4 medium potatoes- leave peels on
1 teaspoon dried rosemary
1 tablespoon olive oil
Salt & pepper to season
1. Cook potatoes, add a pinch of salt and cover with water and cook until tender, about 15minutes.
2. When cooked, remove from potatoes from water and add dried rosemary and olive oil.
And salt and pepper to taste.
3. Toss gently with a fork to coat potatoes. Serve warm.



1 cup mayonnaise
¼ cup tomato-based chili sauce
¼ cup milk
2 Tbsp red-wine vinegar
2 Tbsp sweet pickle relish
1 Tbsp chopped fresh parsley
1 scallion or onion, thinly sliced
To taste salt and pepper
1 head iceberg lettuce, cored and cut into 4 wedges

1. In a bowl, whisk together mayonnaise, chili sauce, milk, vinegar, relish, parsley, scallion, and ¼ teaspoon each of salt and pepper.
2. Place lettuce wedges on a platter or divide among four plates;
Drizzle dressing over top, as desired or let each person add dressing.
Serve immediately. Serves four



3 Tbsp red-wine vinegar
3 Tbsp olive oil
1 ….. Shallot, minced
2 tsp capers, rinsed and coarsely chopped
3 …. ripe tomatoes
To taste salt and pepper

1. Core tomatoes and cut into wedges and place into serving bowl and chill in refrigerator.
2. In small bowl, whisk together vinegar and olive oil.
3. Stir in shallot
4. Add capers
5. When ready to serve, Drizzle with dressing and season with salt and pepper.


images (2)
BAKED SQUASH – Acorn, Buttercup or Butternut
Method 1: Baking whole, uncut, best preserves flavor and texture.
1. Wash squash, unpeeled and uncut, and place on a baking sheet or in a baking pan.
2. Set oven for 350 degrees and allow about 45 minutes for a 1 pound squash and 1 ½ hours for a 3 pound squash.
3. When baked, insert fork or knife and when it goes in easily, it’s done.
4. Cut in half and remove the seeds.
5. Season with butter and salt and pepper. Serve hot.

Method 2:
1. Wash squash, peel and cut in half.
2. Place on baking sheet or in baking pan, cut side up.
3. Spread inside with butter.
4. Bake at 350 degrees for about an hour or until tender.
5. Add more butter, if desired, and salt and pepper. Serve hot.


2 Tbsp Butter
2 Packages (10 ounces each) fresh spinach
Pinch ground nutmeg
To taste salt and pepper

1. Wash spinach and cut off tough ends. Drain, but not dry-leaving some of the water clinging to the leaves.
2. In a saucepan with tight-fitting lid, melt butter, low heat.
3. Add spinach, cover and cook until wilted, about 5 minutes, stirring once.
4. Remove from heat. Season with nutmeg, salt and pepper. Serve immediately with slotted spoon.








Radish  The RADISH – (Raphanus sativus) of the Brassicaceae family, is an edible root vegetable and usually eaten raw as a crunchy vegetable.

Scientists believe the origin is southeast Asia.  It was know in Europe in pre-Roman times. Radishes were first recorded in history in the 3rd century BC and by the 1st century AD the Greek and      Romans wrote about “small, large, round, long, mild and sharp varieties.” *

There are several varieties.  the outer skin color of most varieties ranges from white to pink to red.  There are some purple, yellow, green and black varieties, also.  One may be most familiar with    the small, red, round variety.  Also popular is the white, elongated radish.  When harvested, the radish tastes crisp and sweet.  If left in the soil too long, they become bitter and tough.

Radishes are fast-growing annuals, liking cool seasons.  They are easy to grow.  Seeds germinate in 3-4 days, preferring soil temperatures of 65-86 degrees F,  and air temperature of 50-65 degrees F.

Crops mature in 3-4 weeks.  They like full sun, light, sandy soil with a pH 6.5 – 7.0.  (In warmer temperatures, plant in the autumn.)  Can plant every two weeks to have a continuous crop.

The size of the root (radish) depends on the depth at which the seeds are planted.  For small radishes, plant 1 cm (0.4 in) deep.  For larger radishes, plant 4 cm (1.6 in) deep. When sprouted, thin plants to 1 inch apart.

After harvest, one can store 2-3 days at room temperature or a couple months at 0 degrees C (32 degrees F).


To use, cut off leaves and root end.  Wash.Radishes-WhNutritionally –  100 grams (3.5 ounces):    .

Energy –    –    –    16 kcalories                                     Total Fat  –    –    0 gm

download (1)Carbohydrates – – 3.4  gm                                           Saturated Fat –   0 gms

Sugar  –     –   –    1.86 gm                                          Cholesterol  –  –  0 gms

Dietary Fiber  –      1.6  gm                                           Protein  –   –   –   1 gm



Vitamin B1 V- Thiamine  –   0.012  mg              1%                          Vitamin A  –  –      0%

Vitamin B2 – Riboflavin    –  0.039  mg               3%                        Iron  –  –  –   –  –     2%

Vitamin B3 – Niacin  –  –  –  0.254 mg  –  –           2 %                       Calcium  –  –  –      3%

Vitamin B6 –   –   –  –   –  –  0.011 mg   –  –         5%

Vitamin C   –  –   –   –   —  14.8 mg   –  –  –       18%


I have read comments attributing much nutritional value to radishes.  Although I believe radishes do contribute to our nutritional well-being, the amount one would need to consume is too large to allow enjoyment in eating. The above figures are for 100 grams or about a 1/2 cup serving. A half-cup or 1 cup of radishes is more than I prefer to eat at one time.  I like to eat radishes for fun, as an addition to a salad or as a garnish or just a couple raw radishes to enjoy.

Radishes, of course, can be eaten raw, just plain. Or mix them into your favorite greens salad or cold slaw.  Try adding them to sandwiches, like pickles. Or you may like to add them to your favorite dips or spread.








*  Wikipedia